Tuesday, August 7, 2007


The business information services on business registration, business planning, bookkeeping, marketing, trade fairs, access to finance (see right navigation bar) are the necessary background information for BDS facilitators and BDS providers and their institutions for efficient Business Development Services on the enterprise level. Business plan templates and Import-Export procedure formats as well as cash book templates and cost calculation formats can be printed out and are ready for use.

After a first Internet based version of information services , information has been revised, printed, published. A serie of handbooks is now for sale in the Ethiopian bookshops and via distribution channels of partner organizations like the Chambers of Commerce.

In Ghana actually we are still in the first publishing phase with information services on the BDS Ghana web and non-published drafts for print-out.

Some handbooks like marketing strategies, basic bookkeeping and business planning can be used in different countries while others like taxation, import-export and access to finance have rather country-specific contents and would serve only as a sort of template for adaptation in other countries.

The 6-month BDS Cycles

Situation analysis and Action planning

Linkage to BDS providers

Follow-up and supervision

BDS with Medium Enterprises

Working with selected BDS facilitators and business consultants

Create a fund for non-financial services in collaboration
with financial institutions

Our BDS training experience with the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia


The 6-month BDS Cycle Approach [top]

The demand driven 6-month BDS cycle approach is a participatory method comprising of situation and problem analysis and action planning (one month) and the implementation of services to overcome the identified business constraints (five months). The business owners are assisted by BDS facilitators of partner organizations to identify their main business constraints and to suggest own solutions. The BDS facilitator assists them with refining the owners' proposals and forwards additional problem-solving service interventions in collaboration with public and private BDS providers.

Procedure: Every BDS facilitator identifies 15 businesses for a six-month BDS implementation period. In the first month discussing problems and solutions (needs assessment) in the next five months based on an action-plan supporting the businesses to solve their constraints. In the next 6-month cycle another 15 businesses are identified for further support. The number of BDS facilitators and businesses supported depends on the number and capacity of partner organizations involved.

The situation analysis overview for 10-15 enterprises contains the following issues:

Situation of selected enterprises in ............
Name / Activity
Place / Equipment Products /
Services Supply / Sales / Clients / Marketing Personnel / Business Management Costs per
(Birr) Problems identified by the owner himself and his proposals of solutions
Business owner 1
Business owner 2

By the help of a situation analysis overview, the facilitator documents the situation and problems of e.g. 10-15 operators and transfers it to a five-month action plan:

First 5-month action plan of BDS delivery in ............... (e.g. March 2007 to July 2007)
Name / Activity Problems identified
by the owner himself Proposals of action
Self-help initiative
of the operator Additional support by
the BDS provider
Business owner 1
Business owner 2

Filled example of situation analysis and action plan see BDS approach - short profile for download on www.bds-forum.net/download.htm (toolbox)

Type of support: Depending on business owner’s needs - marketing research, product development, business planning, accounting and cost calculation, access to finance, support for administrative problems, tax problems, premises, trade fair participation, export-import procedures, research for equipment supply, linkage to technical trainings, organizational development of business associations and chambers etc.

BDS providers: Main task of the BDS facilitator is not to solve the business constraints by himself but to link to competent professional BDS providers, such as training centers, marketing specialists, trade fair organizers and chambers of commerce etc.. Small support activities, e.g. initiate and follow up a simple cash book implementation can be done by the BDS facilitator himself but important problems will only be solved in collaboration with professional public and private service providers.

Follow-up and supervision: If problems of some enterprises could not be solved within the 6-month period, the partner organization will assign one of the BDS facilitators to leave the normal BDS cycles and to take over only those entrepreneurs from the previous cycle who need further support. We call these facilitators "follow-up" facilitators. If the partner organization has a lot of BDS facilitators, then it should assign the best one to leave the direct business support and to take over the supervision of the BDS facilitators. We call him BDS team leader.

Monitoring and Evaluation: All businesses involved and type and number of support activities are documented in the initial situation analyses and action plans of the BDS facilitators. At the end of the 6-month cycle, facilitators write a simple report on their achievements:

Name of Business
Support activities identified

(repeat the actions of your
last action plan with the
same numbers)
Support activities achieved (only your real achievements)
Impact and remarks
(reasons for failure)

Business 1
Business 2...

Project staff will write a summary of the businesses involved and type and number of support actions achieved (make an Excel sheet overview). Overall impact monitoring is done once per year by an independent local consultant (see product 5: M+E for projects). In addition, partner organizations can organize specific SWOT meetings with entrepreneurs involved in order to analyze impact of their support given (see product 6: M+E for partner organizations).

Examples: 500 BDS facilitators of 20 partner organizations in Ethiopia supporting more than 9,000 businesses in two 6-month BDS cycles per year (see www.bds-ethiopia.net). 24,000 artisans and crafts supported together with the Federation of Artisans and Crafts in Mali (see www.mali-business.com). Follow-up of CEFE start-ups in Tunisia in all regions of the country together with the Tunisian Manpower Agency (see www.bds-forum.net/tunisia).

Because of sustainability, BDS facilitators should be identified from existing staff of partner organizations. These staffs are not very experienced and have only a low level qualification profile. Therefore permanent follow-up and on-the-job training in the first four BDS cycles is necessary.


BDS with Medium Entreprises [top]

The above mentioned 6-month BDS cycle approach can be adapted not only to micro and small enterprises but also to medium size entreprises. The BDS cycle approach can be trained to staffs of private and public institutions and organizations for intervention to micro an small enterprises as well as to higher qualified business consultants for interventions to medium enterprises.

The problem is not the approach but the question of sustainability: who will pay AFTER project's intervention business consultants with higher qualification but also with higher financial claims? We know that the commercial BDS approach which asks for full payment of BDS services by the business owners themselves, has failed for interventions to micro and small enterprises. That is why our approach is a moderate approach together with private and public institutions on cost-sharing and not on cost-recovering basis.

Will the commercial BDS approach work for medium enterprises? Until now - after eight years of commercial BDS approach dissemination - we still do not have a real success of commercial BDS approach even to medium enterprises with the necessary outreach and impact.

Fact is that for consultancy to medium enterprises we need higher qualified staffs. That is why for BDS interventions to medium enterprises we developed the following options:

We know that some staffs of SME development institutions have the necessary educational qualification and professional experiences to be trained for BDS with medium enterprises. It is a question of selection, training, training-on-the-job, supervision and follow-up before, during and after the 6-month BDS cycles. We are convinced, that between the 500 trained BDS facilitators in Ethiopia we could identify at least 50 who will be able to deliver the necessary facilitation for discussion and identification of business problems as well as to link businesses to the respective BDS providers in order to solve the problems. This option has a good expectation of sustainability because these staffs are already paid staffs of partner organizations.

We also know that a large number of business consultants are not qualified in the beginning and have to be trained in the same way as the above mentioned staffs. Some business consultants will have a high qualification for BDS with medium enterprises and can do a fine job. The question is that of sustainabality: who will pay them? Two options are presented as follows:

Business consultants will be paid by the medium enterprises themselves. Medium enterprises have a higher capacity to finance strategic business development services. That is why there will be some possibilities for BDS delivery on commercial basis. But we fear that this approach will not have the necessary outreach to thousands of enterprises.

That is why we discussed with banks and micro-finance institutions in Ethiopia and Ghana on our proposal to create funds for business consultancy services: [top]

Create Funds for Business Consultancy Services
in collaboration with Banks, Rural Bank and Micro-Finance

It is normal practice that banks take proceeding fees or so-called “Commitment fees” for every loan application. Commitment fees in Ghana are between 2-4% of the loan amount.

Our proposal is that banks top up their commitment fee by 0.5-1% - and this should be for all loans. With this 0.5-1% they open an account for non-financial services. Borrowers will get the opportunity to ask for non-financial Business Development Services. The bank will decide on each application and, if necessary select a business consultant to provide the service. Finally the consultant will be paid by the fund.

All banks interviewed on this issue have answered positively because non-financial services for their loan clients would improve the performance of the businesses and increase the repayment rate. More details on this approach for download: fund-for-non-financial-services.doc 120 KB

Our BDS Training Experience with the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia [top]

The Commercial Bank of Ethiopia (CBE) asked us to organize a business counselling training to their so-called "Outreach officers", bank staffs involved in follow-up of business credit clients. Obviously, one of the major reasons for the failure of the business community in honouring its debt repayment is absence of apropriate business skills to effectively run its business. Hence, the provision of counselling will bridge the gap.

The participants - 16 officers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, staffs from the product development division, workout loans division and credit monitoring section - got trained to provide basic support to their customer entreprises by themselves and facilitate the intervention of commercial and non-commercial BDS providers and other agencies. After the field experience, participants wrote down the situation analysis overview of seven medium and large scale enterprises and transformed it to a five-month action plan.

Have a look on the complete report for download including the filled situation analysis overview of seven medium and large companies on pages 5-10 and the filled action plan on pages 14-18. A detailed situation analysis overview of seven companies has been worked out by the participants as well as concrete BDS activities to solve the identified main business constraints:

Lessons learned on Business Development Services (BDS)

Business owners' problems cannot always be solved by a limited classroom training system, because course systems often focus on standard and supply driven services and less on tailor made demand driven services.

An effective BDS system with course and training activities should be completed by a direct advisory or business consultancy system on business level.

Direct advisory services can give us an idea about the concrete problems of micro and small enterprises (MSE) instead of studies and analysis that give us an idea about sector problems in general.

Advisory or business consultancy systems have to be prepared by a concrete needs assessment on individual business level. In this needs assessment, business owners will be encouraged in a participatory manner to identify their main problems by themselves and to formulate proposals of solutions.

Sector studies can provide a lot of data on the MSE sector, they are useful and can give us an idea of the main sector problems in general, but cannot replace concrete talks and assessments on individual business level which finally will guide us to concrete business services delivery.

Individual needs assessment and BDS deliveries are not necessarily limited in effectiveness and outreach. With a larger number of facilitators or BDS providers, this system can have an outreach impact rather wide, e.g.:

70 facilitators of the Tunisian manpower agency advise 10 enterprises each in a three month action plan - 70x10x3 = 2,100 operators per year).

All German chambers of trades keep a business advisor busy who gives individual and concrete advises to the businesses of their regions.

500 Ethiopian BDS facilitators of 20 partner organizations supported about 9,400 businesses per year.

Individual needs assessment results can be generalized on group or sector level. But in this case, group advisory and sector approach have been identified and implemented bottom-up and not top-down. This will be a better way to carry out a business services delivery system responding on the real needs of operators.

BDS should be market oriented in terms of cost sharing and cost recovery of its services. But there will always be services that will never attempt a 100% cost recovery but only cost sharing. So we have to accept that BDS cannot only be developed with commercial business providers but also with other private non-profit organisations with diversified financing (cost sharing services plus donor funded activities) as done by private NGO. Some services will even have to be provided by public structures.

Toolkit for BDS-Facilitation. Demand-driven Business Development Services

The BDS Toolkit is a summary of our moderate BDS approach including commercial BDS providers as well as NGOs, self-help organizations and public institutions with contents on BDS theory, success stories, situations analysis and action plan templates and practical examples.

Contents: BDS definition; what means demand-driven? Criteria to select businesses for BDS; achievements and success stories; training workshop programme on BDS implementation; first steps for implementation after training; formats and templates.
The following documented BDS workshops are action-oriented trainings. During the training participants will make interviews with business owners and develop a situation analysis overview including needs assessment and problem analysis and then carry out, together with the business owners, a six-month action plan for self-help and additional BDS support.

Dieter Gagel, Yemen 2006
BDS Theory and Practice. Workshop report
bds-workshop-report-yemen-2006.pdf. 3,5 MB . This is the latest and most complet training including experiences from 2002-2006 from different countries

Dieter Gagel, Addis Ababa 2003
Introducing counselling services to customers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia bds-cbe-workshop-10-03.doc Example of BDS with medium enterprises

Dieter Gagel, Addis Ababa 2002
Training of Trainers: Needs assessment, action planning
and BDS delivery report tot-bds 12-02.doc

Dieter Gagel, Addis Ababa 2002
Training workshop for BDS facilitators bds workshop 7-02.doc

New training modules for entrepreneurs


Use for other countries

Présentation des 7 Modules

Objectif et Utilisation des Modules

Module 1: Les cycles de Création
et de Gestion d'Entreprise

Module 2: Stratégies de Marketing
et Etude de Marché

Module 3: Comptabilité et Calcul de Coûts

Module 4: Procédures administratives
de Création d'Entreprise

Module 5: Guide d'Accès au Financement

Module 6: Comment élaborer
un Plan d'Affaires

Module 7: Promotion du Commerce International

The 7 training modules are in French.

The English version would be published
in November 2007, if there is interest.

Show your interest for an English version
free for use and without copyright
and contact mail@gagel.net !

The Senegal edition


7 Training modules for entrepreneurs [top]

On behalf of GTZ Senegal has been elaborated a series of training modules for entrepreneurs in French language. This training modules are published without copyright and are free for use. The advantages of the modules in comparison with already existing entrepreneurship trainings are the following:

Less standardisation and more flexibility: The modules are very flexible in use. You can take the whole series for a one week training, or take one module for a one day training or even take a specific chapter for a specific target group, ex.g. take only the cash book chapter for micro enterprises without more complicated cost calculation issues. Instead of training, the modules can also be used for business consultancy on the spot. All depends on the needs and demand of the businesses involved: demand-driven and needs oriented.

Country specific contents: Our modules make also the difference with more concrete country specific contents on taxation, business registration and acces to finance. About 70-80% of the contents are general while 20-30% are country-specific.

If you want to take over the modules, then you should consider the following steps:

Contact mail@gagel.net and you will get a special version where the country-specific parts to be replaced by your own country specific parts are highlighted by yellow background. This will help you to make the necessary changes.

Then engage a local consultant to get the necessary specific data of your country.

Project: English Version

For the English version: most of the contents of the french edition have been written on the background of experiences made in Ethiopia and other english speaking countries. If you want to edit an English version, then most of the contents can
be replaced by the original english parts.

The English version would be
published in November 2007,
if there is interest.

Show your interest for an English version free for use and without copyright and contact
mail@gagel.net !


Objectif et Utilisation des Modules [top]

Les sept modules de formation de l'entrepreneur sont des modules adaptés aux créateurs d'entreprise, ainsi qu'aux micros, petites et moyennes entreprises. Les modules comprennent non seulement des thèmes généraux tels que l'élaboration d'un plan d'affaires, mais aussi de thèmes spécifiques au pays, tels que les procédures de registrement d'entreprise aux Sénégal, les impôts et taxes aux Sénégal, des répertoires des structures d'appui et financières au Sénégal et des formats et pièces comptables en vente au Sénégal.

Les modules ne sont pas non plus standardisés en ce qui concerne leur utilisation et emploi de temps: il y a des modules d'une demi-journée et des modules de deux jours. Il dépend des objectifs et groupes-cibles de la formation de choisir les modules adaptés ou même de se limiter à des chapitres spécifiques tels que l'introduction d'un journal de caisse/banque avec comptes comptables. Les modules peuvent être utilisés ensemble comme une serie de formations pendant une dizaine de jours, ou utilisés à part pour des cours destinés à un thème spécifique.

Maximum de flexibilité par rapport aux besoins des groupes-cibles et orienté à leur demande -
c'est ça l'avantage des modules par rapport aux autres systèmes de formation d'entrepreneurs
au marché international.

Le module 1 est un module d'introduction destiné aux créateurs d'entreprise.

Le module 7 est adapté aux entrepreneurs expérimentés et avancés.


Aperçu des 7 Modules [top]

Les versions actuelles ne sont pas encore des versions finales: DRAFTS

Veuillez nous faire parvenir vos commentaires, critiques, suggestions pour la finalisation des modules.

Module 1: Cycles de Création et de Gestion
d'Entreprise [top]

Module pour créateurs d'entreprise. Introduction aux quatre phases de création et de gestion d'entreprise avec des exercices pratiques: (plan d'actions, formulation de l'idée de projet, analyse de vos compétences, analyse du projet avec analyse FFOM (Forces-Faiblesse-Opportunités-Menaces)

Phase 1: Identification et sélection de l'idée de projet

Phase 2: Recherche des informations

Phase 3: Création d'entreprise

Phase 4: Gestion et expansion d'entreprise

Module 1 à télécharger: module-1-cycles.doc 1,1 Mo


Module2: Marketing et Etude de Marché [top]

Stratégie "4P" en marketing

Développement des Produits

Fixer des Prix

Place: Choisir l'emplacement stratégique

Promouvoir vos affaires

Analyse des intermédiaires et de la clientèle

Analyse du marché concurrentiel

Exercice sur le terrain

Etude du marché de ventes

Analyse du marché d'approvisionnement

Module 2 à télécharger: module-2-marketing.doc 770 Ko


Module 3: Comptabilité de base et Calcul des Coûts [[top]

Journal de caisse/banque simple

Journal de caisse/banque avec comptes comptables

Tableau des résultats annuels

Journal électronique

Calcul des coûts

Analyser les composantes du prix

Coûts fixes et variables,

Seuil de rentabilité

Module 3 à télécharger: module-3-gestion.doc 1,5 Mo

Journal électronique basé sur Excel avec reports automatiques mensuels sur un tableau sommaire des résultats mensuels et annuel! modele-journal.xls 130 Ko


Module 4: Procédures administratives
d'Enregistrement d'Enterprise [top]

Statut légal de l'entreprise

Procédures d'enregistrement

Immatriculation au registre de commerce

Obtention du NINEA

Inspection du travail

Sécurité sociale

Institutions de prévoyance

Impôts et taxes

Contrats de travail

Sécurité sociale

Structures d'appui et formulaires

Module 4 à télécharger:
module-4-procedures-d-enregistrement.doc 636 Ko


Module 5: Guide d'Accès au Financement [top]

Identification des besoins en financement

Identification des problèmes contra-productifs au crédit

Epargne et crédit, fonds propre, ouverture d'un compte

Conditions d'accès au crédit

Formaliser l'entreprise

Assurer une gestion viable

Montrer la rentabilité du crédit

Montrer la capacité de remboursement

Sources de financement

Montage du dossiers de crédit

Module 5 à télécharger: module5-acces-au-financement.doc 1 Mo


Module 6: Comment élaborer un Plan d'Affaires [top]

Plans d'affaires pour créateurs et petites entreprises

Données personnelles

Profil de l'activité

Etude de marché

Plan de production

Calcul des coûts

Plan de financement

Seuil de rentabilité

Modèle d'étude de projet

Formats prêt à l'emploi et Instructions

Module 6 à télécharger: module-6-plan-d-affaires.doc 1,2 Mo


Module 7: Promotion du Commerce International [top]

Institutions internationales et sénégalaises de promotion

E-Commerce: Marché virtuels à l'Internet

Procédures d'importation et d'exportation

Guide de participation aux foires et expositions

Calendriers et bases de données pour foires internationales

This short photo documentation on success stories gives you an idea of our fields of interventions and activities. More success stories please find for download below.

Hollow bloc production:

Problems: Construction graduate without job; no start-up capital; no working premise.

Support by BDS facilitator: Municipality provided land; linked to micro-finance and got credit; linked to Selam technical center to buy hollow-bloc machine; entrepreneurship training provided; market link to the municipality for sales of blocs for public toilets; minimising costs by using waste water from the hill.

Impact: Owner got self-employed; 12 workers employed; income is good because of low production costs, good quality and marketing support.

Facilitator Mercato area
Action planning

Car wash cooperative
Car wash cooperative
Car wash cooperative:

Problem: 12 unempoyed 12th grade complete students looking for job; no business idea; no start-up capital; no working premises.

Support by BDS facilitator: Support in business idea generation; organising in cooperative; municipality provided premises and cleaned space; linked to micro-finance and got credit; bought some equipment and built premises; opended car wash and shop for oil etc; record keeping provided.

Impact: 12 cooperative members employed with stabilised income

Owner with facilitator

Bookkeeping Mini-supermarket:

Problem: Lack of working premises; shortage of working capital; limited market access; no premises.

Support by BDS facilitator: Municipality provided space for shop; linked to micro-finance and got credit; shop constructed by the owner; entrepreneurship training and bookkeeping provided; linked to public events for sales.

Impact: Owner got self-employed; 2 workers employed; income is good because of strategic shop location.

Carpenter workshop in Ambo


poor tools


Auto-mechanics Ambo

Metal works Ambo

This is a local made
welding machine

Tailoring workshop Ambo

Shop with textile stocks

Project planning workshop

Procedure to produce metal chairs with a simple bending machine

BDS Success Stories for download:

Ethiopian BDS Network, Addis Ababa 2004
20 Success Stories on Business Development Services bds-success-stories10-2004.pdf

Business Climate Survey, Good Governance and Red Tape Ranking

Economic Research Activities

Public Private Dialogue

Poverty Reduction Strategies

Financial Systems Development

Anti-Corruption, Ethics in Business


Business Climate Survey, Good Governance, Red Tape [top]

World Bank/IFC Doing Business www.doingbusiness.org
The Doing Business database provides measures of business regulations and their enforcement. The Doing Business indicators are comparable across 175 economies. They indicate the regulatory costs of business and can be used to analyze specific regulations that enhance or constrain investment, productivity, and growth. Data including business registration, taxation, licensing, getting credit, registering property, protecting investors, employing workers, dealing with licences, trading across borders, red-tape ranking.

MIGA World Bank Group

Snapshot Africa. Benchmarking of Foreign Direct Investment
snapshot_africa/ Cost and Conditions for the Textile, Apparel, Horticulture, Food and Beverage Processing, Shared Services and Tourism Industries. Ghana (2.0 MB PDF file), Kenya (1.9 MB PDF file), Lesotho (1.2 MB PDF file), Madagascar (1.8 MB PDF file), Mali (1.9 MB PDF file), Mozambique (1.7 MB PDF file), Senegal (1.9 MB PDF file), Tanzania (1.8 MB PDF file), Uganda (1.7 MB PDF file)

Worldbank 2002
Pilot Investment Climate Assessment Buthan

http://rru.worldbank.org/paperLinks/Pilot Investment Climate Assessment Bhutan.pdf 1,7 Mb

Example: Table of Contents of Investment Climate Survey Buthan (Worldbank):

GTZ, ASCCI, Livingfacts, South Africa
The SADC Regional Business Climate Survey (RBCS) www.rbcs.info
Results of the 2005 survey business-climat-sadc.pdf 3 MB
Tools: Checklist for conducting the survey www.rbcs.info/tools.htm
Survey approach: www.rbcs.info/survey.htm

Banque Mondiale, Dakar 2005
Evaluation du climat des investissements au Sénégal
climat-inverstissements-senegal .pdf 2,7 Mo

Elimane Fall, consultant pour PEJU, Dakar 8/2006
Contraintes au niveau du climat des affaires pour les MPME du secteur formel et informel au Sénégal climat-affaires.doc 276 Ko

Red Tape - Anti Bureaucracy Interventions

Definition: Red Tape is the necessity to complete extensive paperwork to gain approval by several people in order to accomplish a goal. The term is often used with bureaucracy, as in ‘bureaucratic red tape.' Anti - Red Tape interventions reduce administrative burdens imposed on businesses

Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE) Red Tape Ranking www.cipe.org/programs/informalsector/redtaperanking/index.php

UNIDO Cutting Red-Tape in Mozambique www.unido.org/doc/4700

GTZ Good Governance

GTZ Public Sector Reform


Economic Research Activities [top]

Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU)
www.nepru.org.na NEPRU's mission is to support Namibia's national development goals by providing economic policy advice, conducting economic research and building economic research capacity. "Access to independent, objective, accurate and reliable economic research and data is indispensible for wise decision making to achieve Vision 2030." (President of the Namibian Employers' Federation)


Public Private Dialogue [top]

DFID, World Bank, IFC, OECD, GTZ
PublicPrivateDialogue.org www.publicprivatedialogue.org
This website is about how governments, businesses and donors can use public private dialogue (PPD) to promote private sector development and poverty reduction

Case Studies: Case studies.html I Lessons learned: Lessons learned

Charter of Good Practice in using Public Private Dialogue for Private Sector Development ppp-charter.pdf 74 Ko

PPD Handbook.pdf (3.67mb), which includes detailed operational guidelines for practitioners, a standardized PPD diagnostic tool and an indicator-based PPD monitoring and evaluation framework.

Checklist for practitioners.pdf (32kb) Extracted from the World Bank Working Paper on Competitiveness Partnerships, this concise four-page checklist allows stakeholders to quickly assess various aspects of a dialogue mechanism and identify potential problem areas

How to Promote Public-Private Dialogue for Business Enabling Environment Reform.pdf (130kb) A brief "how to" note extracting practical lessons


Poverty Reduction Strategies [top]

World Bank
Poverty Reduction Strategies www.worldbank.org/poverty
Topics: Pro-Poor Growth & Inequality, Poverty Analysis, Poverty Mapping,
Poverty Monitoring, Impact Evaluation, Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA), Empowerment, Migration and Development, Moving Out of Poverty, Social Capital, Poverty and Health, Safety Nets and Transfers
Overview of PRSP by countries: Poverty Reduction Strategies
The PRSP Sourcebook PRSP Sourcebook is a guide to assist countries in the development and strengthening of poverty reduction strategies. The Sourcebook reflects the thinking and practices associated with the Comprehensive Development Framework, as well as lessons emerging from the World Development Report on Poverty, and good international practices related to poverty reduction.

GTZ Poverty www.gtz.de/en/themen/uebergreifende-themen/armut/902.htm

GTZ Structural Poverty Reduction

GTZ Poverty Reduction in sub-Saharan Africa www.gtz.de/en/leistungsangebote/11480.htm

GTZ National Monitoring of Strategies for Sustainable Poverty Reduction/PRSP www.gtz.de/en/themen/uebergreifende-themen/armut/5607.htm


Financial Systems Development [top]

A financial system is an essential component of every economy. With the help of credit, it provides the funds for investment. It also helps private households prepare for contingencies by providing savings instruments, insurance products, and a payment system.

However, poor people in developing and transition countries are often excluded from the system of saving and investment, because they have no access to banks, savings associations, or credit unions. In order to enable these people to access financial services, financial systems development directly or indirectly supports financial institutions and public institutions oriented to the target group.

IRIS Center at the University of Maryland 2006
Microfinance Regulation in Seven Countries: A Comparative Study
www.microfinancegateway.com/files/33990_file_01.doc A comparative study of microfinance regulation in Bolivia, Brazil, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines and South Africa. This paper addresses the following through a comparative study: Size and characteristics of the market; Development of the regulatory framework for microfinance; Approaches to microfinance supervision; Microfinance promotion and market development; Implementation and impact of microfinance regulation.

Handbook for the analysis of the governance of microfinance institutions
www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/05-0700.pdf (English)
www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/05-0701.pdf (French)

CGAP 2005
Guiding Principles on Regulation and Supervision of Microfinance Institutions cgap.org/docs/Guideline_RegSup.pdf

GTZ WiRAM Library More documents on Financial System Development


Anti-Corruption, Ethics in Business [top]

GTZ Corruption www.gtz.de/en/themen/politische-reformen/korruption/885.htm

Literature on Corruption

Links on Corruption

United Nations - Global Compact www.globalcompact.org
The Global Compact is an UN initiative. At its core are 10 principles for human rights, labour standards, the environment and eliminating corruption. The Global Compact calls upon globally active companies to recognise these principles and to take steps to put them into effect. The Global Compact asks companies to embrace, support and enact, within their sphere of influence, a set of core values in the areas of human rights, labour standards, the environment, and anti-corruption:

Human Rights

Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and

Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses.

Labour Standards

Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;

Principle 4: the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour;

Principle 5: the effective abolition of child labour; and

Principle 6: the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.


Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges;

Principle 8: undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and

Principle 9: encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies


Principle 10: Businesses should work against all forms of corruption, including extortion and bribery.

Business Anti-Corruption Portal www.business-anti-corruption.dk
The following instruments are available on the portal:

About Corruption: Definitions, interpretations and references to international and national legislation and initiatives relevant to businesses. This facility should enable you to navigate in the increasing volume of international legislation and increase awareness of grey area questions. This facility includes a glossary of terms related to business and corruption.

Integrity System: A model Code of Conduct. This code of conduct builds on experience from the Transparency International Business Principles and the ICC Code of Conduct. Examples of key procedures. A guidance question list which serves as a basis for a risk analysis
A model risk assessment tool, which can be combined with the country analysis and the risk management tools (see below)

Due Diligence Tools: Related to seeking and vetting an agent or a consultant, setting up a joint venture and implementing a project. These tools are detailed and can be used in combination with the detailed country profiles.

Country Profiles: Detailed information of strategic importance for businesses. These profiles are presented as a business intelligence system which contains a short introduction to corruption and anti-corruption experiences in the country in question. The occurrence of corruption is measured on three levels: individual, company and political level. Frequencies are provided if available. Furthermore, an overview of public and private anti-corruption initiatives is provided. Depending on the access to information on a country, detailed information in approximately ten sectors is provided. The information you will find in the country profiles is based on publicly accessible documentation and feedback from companies and local partners.

Information Networks: Contact information to turn to for local help.

Links to relevant documents and websites for further reference.

U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Center www.u4.no
The U4 Group (initially 4 members) consists of the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany and Canada, whose international development ministers have formed a partnership to co-ordinate development assistance policies. Themes:

Political corruption Definitions, cases, the challenges and options, and a literture overview.

Corruption in emergencies Includes resources on risk mapping, the role of the media, selected literature, and more. Soon available: Corruption and procurement in emergencies.

Public financial management and corruption Issue pages on corruption and direct budget support, corruption and revenue administration, and corruption and the budget process.

Donor coordination of anti-corruption efforts Case studies, country- and donor factors, possibilities and practicalities, further resources, etc.

Knowledge management for anti-corruption Summary note looking at the problems, perspectives and prospects. Links to further resources and background materials.

Corruption in the health sector A comprehensive overview of the relevant issues (causes and consequences, financial resources management, medical supplies, health worker / patient interaction, salaries, and more).

Corruption in the education sector Resources on the challenges posed by corruption in the education sector with a focus on development co-operation and implementation of aid projects.

Public expenditure tracking surveys Can PETS be a tool for tackling corruption?

Anti-corruption conventions An overview of conventions, their scope and powers.

African anti-corruption commissions Studies of ACCs in five African countries (Ghana, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia).

Corruption in public procurement An overview of the issues with examples from the health and education sectors.

Debarment Focus on the effectiveness debarment as a means to challenge corruption openly, particularly in public procurement processes.

Business Keeper AG www.business-keeper.com
Internal whistleblowing is an important risk management component in companies and administrations. To minimize risks to a company's image and financial standing the most important task after prevention is the early detection of internal misconduct. Approximately 40% of all such cases are revealed by whistleblowers with insider knowledge although, it is not only employees who contribute to such disclosure but customers and suppliers as well. Studies show that whistleblowing is the most effective measure in the clarification of misconduct. Moreover, organisations that do not implement a whistleblowing system suffer, on average, losses due to fraudulent offenses more than twice as often as those that have set up a secure communication channel. Because of the lack of juridical protection for the whistleblowers and the fear of repressive measures by colleagues and supervisors, the ensured anonymity of whistleblowers that protects them from negative personal reprisals, as well as lowering their inhibition to report fraudulent behaviour, is essential. Previous whistleblowing systems are either not able to guarantee the whistleblower’s anonymity or cannot establish the dialogue that is essential for the quick clarification of cases. The BKMS® System establishes a connection between these ostensible contrasts for the first time: anonymity and dialog and it ensures the highest possible data security at the same time.

Business Against Crime - South Africa www.bac.co.za
Business Against Crime was established in 1996 to join hands with the Government against crime. The organisation seeks to support Government's efforts by complementing its resources with the entrepreneurial, managerial and technological skills of the South African private sector.

Ethics World - Business Ethics, Governance, Anti-Corruption
www.ethicsworld.org A forum for news, research and analysis on the related fields of corruption, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and workplace ethics. Our readers are from business, government, civil society and academia around the world. EthicsWorld is independent, not-for-profit and driven to contribute to ethical organizational practices.


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